or Connect
TheCatSite.com › Forums › Our Feline Companions › Pregnant Cats and Kitten Care › I Hope You Enjoy This Web Site I Found!!!
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:

I Hope You Enjoy This Web Site I Found!!!

post #1 of 3
Thread Starter 
I found tOBLEMS.


Cats, with few exceptions. have come through the ages remarkably unscathed in respect of size, shape and temperament. Today, however, the cat breeder has as much, if not more, to do with the control of feline genetics, than does natural selection. The breeder has become the arbiter of standards which, for better or worse, may influence, among other characteristics, the cat’s ability to reproduce. The effect of this has been shown in a recent survey of over 700 breeding cats which found that cats with extremes of conformation, such as the Siamese and Persians, experienced much higher levels of dystocia (difficult births), 10% and 7,1% of births being affected, respectively, than cats with normal conformation (only 2,3% of births being affected).

When dealing with breeding problems it is important to understand the normal anatomy and mechanics of parturition. As in other animals that give birth to a number of offspring at one time, the uterus or womb of the cat is divided into two long horns or cornua, one on each side. These lead back, one from each ovary, to join together into a short body which is closed during pregnancy by the cervix, which is a strong muscular ring. From here, the birth canal or vagina leads through the pelvis and out at the vulva. In pregnancy the fetuses are spaced along each horn. Each fetus is contained within its own membranes and has its own placenta through which it derives nourishment during its development within the womb.

At parturition, the irregularly-shaped and relatively unyielding fetus (kitten to be) passes through the irregularly-shaped and completely unyielding bony tunnel (the maternal pelvis) before it reaches the outside. The kitten has to change its method of receiving oxygen and nourishment; it must switch from supplies derived through the placenta to inhaled air and sucked milk. Moreover, it is at first incapable of controlling its body temperature and must derive warmth from contact with its mother. Birth is a hazardous journey at the best of times and potentially a fatal one.

The uterus may be considered as a muscular, sausage-shaped bag, capable of contracting both around its diameter and along its length. By relaxing in front of the fetus and squeezing behind it, the uterus propels it along towards its exit. To help in its passage, each fetus is contained within a fairly tough double-layered bag (the fetal membranes) which are filled with slippery fluid in which the fetus floats. This serves as both protection and lubrication, and provides a distending, stretching and dilating force when the uterus relaxes in front of it and contracts behind it during the course of parturition. Parturition problems arise when anything goes wrong with propulsion, size, shape or lubrication


Information on the duration of pregnancy is almost entirely derived from cats kept under conditions of confinement, since neither the exact mating nor the kittening date can be accurately known in the feral animal and even in the pet cat the mating date is often a matter of conjecture. Pregnancy has for a long time been held to last for approximately 63 days, but it is certain that very many cats go longer and it seems likely that 65 days is more like the true normal average.

The cat's behaviour alters little until the final week of the pregnancy and the cat will continue to climb and move around quite freely throughout most of the time. During the final week the search for the most suitable kittening bed becomes a dominant factor. Both the breeder's cat and the pet cat should be confined from this time since many of them, if successful in their quest for solitude, will remain hidden and parturition difficulties, if they occur, might prove fatal or, at best, involve unnecessary suffering. Two types of temperament are seen in cats at kittening; the independent type who will go to extreme lengths to discover a dark enclosed space well away from human contact and the dependent type who will go to equal lengths to seek comfort in the presence of its owner and may well choose the best duvet as the most desirable spot for kittening.


Parturition is generally described in its classical three stages, although in the cat the second and third stages are repeated with each kitten and the third stage is brief and nearly continuous with the second.

The first stage

This is essentially the stage of relaxation of the cervix and vagina and the start of intermittent contraction in the uterus. Uterine contractions must always be interrupted by periods of relaxation, otherwise the fetal blood supply would be cut off by contraction of the uterine wall over the closely applied placental areas. The pelvic muscles slacken and the perineum (the area between the anus and the vulva) becomes looser and longer. Uterine contractions are not yet observable as straining, although movement of the fetuses may be clearly seen and felt through the abdominal wall. There is little else to see at this stage except repeat visits to the prospective kittening bed, and in the dependent type cat, an apparent desire for reassurance from the owner. Some scratching up and bed-making occur. Panting may be a late first stage feature although this is not constant. Vaginal discharge is rarely seen and is licked away very promptly by the cat. In the primigravida (cat kittening for the first time) the first stage can be very prolonged, even lasting up to 36 hours without it being abnormal.

The second and third stages

After the relaxation of the first stage, the uterine muscle begins stronger and more frequent contractions which drive the fetus, contained within its membranes, towards and into the pelvic opening. As the first fetus enters the pelvis, the outer layer of the fetal membranes appears briefly at the vulva as the 'water bag', which bursts and sheds some fluid which is promptly cleared up by the cat. The inner layer passes into the pelvis and retains some of the fluid which acts as a continuing lubricant to assist the passage of the fetus.

Fluid pressure plays a very important part in birth. It is the cause of the dilation of the already relaxed cervix, and of the vaginal passage outwards. As the fluid-filled membranes press onwards towards the vulva they are followed by the wedge-shaped head of the fetus which, by the time the water bag is at the vulva, is just beginning to fit into the pelvic entrance in an already rotated position. During its development the fetus has been lying on its back within the membranes, whereas at birth the kitten usually emerges the right way up.

It seems that the fetus itself plays a part in this rotation, which is a simple swing on its long axis together with an extension of its head, neck and limbs. It is an interesting fact that the fetus that dies for any reason before the moment of engaging the pelvis remains unrotated. In the normal case, as the fetal head comes fully into the pelvis, its pressure causes the commencement of voluntary straining using the abdominal muscles. This 'bearing down' helps the transit of the fetus through the unyielding body tunnel of the pelvis. This is usually the point at which the attendant can see that the cat is actually straining. Normally, delivery of a kitten from the commencement of the second stage may take from 5 to 30 minutes. Once the head is out of the vulva, one or two more strains should complete the passage of the narrower remainder of the body.

Third stage follows immediately and is seen simply as the passage of the membranes, complete with the greenish-black mass of separated placenta (the after-birth). It is also the stage of involution, or contracting back into shape and shortening of the segment of the uterus from which the kitten came

Normally each set of membranes is passed immediately after the kitten itself, although sometimes a second kitten will follow so quickly from the opposite uterine horn that the membranes from the first will be trapped temporarily and the two sets will be passed together. As each kitten is born the cat will tear open the membranes and clear the mouth and nose area of the kitten, biting off the umbilical cord and subsequently eating the after-birth. Second and third stages of labour are repeated as each kitten is born. Intervals between kittens are variable from as little as 10 minutes up to an hour, in the average case.

Interrupted labour

So-called interrupted labour is common enough in the cat to be considered a normal occurrence. In this case, when one or more kittens have been born, the mother will cease straining and rest quite happily, suckling those kittens already born. She will accept food and drink and is in every way completely normal except that it is obvious from her size and shape and the presence of fetal movement, that there are still kittens waiting to be born. This resting stage may last up to 24 or even 36 hours, after which straining recommences and the remainder of the litter is born quite normally and easily.


Dystocia, or difficult birth, may arise because of abnormalities on the part of the mother, i.e. maternal dystocia, or on the part of the fetus, i.e. fetal dystocia.

Maternal dystocia may be caused by:

1. Physical obstruction such as narrowing of the maternal pelvis due to fracture or bone disease.

2. Inertia or failure of the uterus to contract.

3. Voluntary nervous or hysterical inhibition of labour by a disturbed cat.

Fetal dystocia may be caused by:

1. Relative oversize.

2. Malformation.

3. Malpresentation of the fetus.


True primary uterine inertia, or complete failure of uterine contractions from the start of labour is rare in the cat. However, a nervous inhibition of labour is relatively more common, especially in the oriental breeds. Extreme apprehension occurs during the first stage and all progress ceases. The cat is markedly and vocally distressed, crying constantly and not letting the owner out of her sight. She may be positively hysterical and in such cases immediate relief may be obtained by the use of tranquillisers. In an emergency this would be administered by a veterinary surgeon by injection, but if the cat in question is known to behave in this fashion, the breeder may be equipped with tablets which can be given by mouth at the start and will be equally effective. However, breeding from known hysterical cats is not advisable.


Major emergencies recognisable in late pregnancy or first stage labour (such as torsion or rupture of the uterus) can occur but are rare in the cat. Torsion implies a twisting of the uterus, cutting off its blood supply, making delivery of the contained fetus or fetuses impossible. It also causes what is quite obviously an acute emergency with a very ill and shocked cat. Torsion is usually presumed to have occurred during jumping or some violent movement which imparts a swinging motion to the heavily gravid uterus. Rupture is more usually the result of an accidental blow from a vehicle or other violent trauma or can occur from violent straining upon a complete obstruction. A rupture occurring at the time of parturition will give rise to the same signs of acute emergency as a torsion. It has been known for rupture to occur early in pregnancy and for the fetus(es) to continue to develop outside the uterus in the maternal abdominal cavity. In these cases the placenta becomes attached to one of the abdominal organs but it is unusual for such fetuses to develop .to full term and, of course impossible for them to be born without an abdominal operation.


Secondary inertia or uterine tiredness, and failure to contract after a prolonged earlier delay can occur. The interrupted type of labour already described is definitely not an inertia, as the cat is manifestly normal, labour recommences normally, and kittens are born alive and normal. An important point of difference between the two is that secondary inertia follows previous difficulty or delay and the cat is often restless and exhausted.

Obstructive dystocia may occur for various reasons. Abnormalities of the soft tissues of the passage of the dam are rare, but a misshapen pelvis, usually following a pelvic fracture, is a fairly common situation. This can give rise to a complete obstruction to delivery, necessitating a Caesarean operation. Any female cat with such a narrowed pelvis should be spayed to prevent breeding. Simple fetal oversize can occur, although it is much rarer in the cat than in the dog since breeds of cats are not nearly so diverse in size and shape as breeds of dog and so far the feline world has been spared the horrors of the miniature and the toy. Fetal monstrosities, such as hydrocephalus or Siamese twins may occur and lead to dystocia but are quite rare.

Fetal malpresentations, malpositions and malpostures may all lead to dystocia. Presentation indicates which way around the fetus is coming (head or tail first), position indicates which way up it is (rotated or unrotated) and posture indicates the placing of the head and limbs (extended or flexed).


Posteriorly presented, or tail-first, kittens occur quite frequently, so much so that this could almost be considered a normal presentation, and often causes no delay in the birth. If, however, the first kitten comes tail-first there may well be delay owing to the absence of the wedge-shaped head pushing behind the fluid-filled membranes. In other words, the most efficient hydraulic distending mechanism is absent in these cases. Usually the kitten is passed eventually; however, it will be at risk of drowning in its own fetal fluids from the moment that the maternal blood supply is cut off by separation of the placenta and before the nose is free.


When malposition occurs it is usually a matter of a kitten that has died in the uterus before rotating. It is uncommon except in cases of illness, infection or prolonged delay.


This is of most importance in relation to the position of the head. The short-faced Persian types may have difficulty at the point where the fetal head first engages in the opening of the maternal pelvis and sometimes the head may become deflected to one side or downwards between the forelegs or on to the breast. Occasionally one or both forelegs may lie back along the body and in posterior or tail-first presentation one or both hind legs may be retained forwards alongside the body to give the Breech posture. All of these situations may give rise to either temporary delay and necessitate extra propulsive efforts by the cat, or, at worst, cause complete obstruction due to the increased diameter of the fetus


A late manifestation of inhibitory hysterical behaviour, may cause delay when the kitten is already through the maternal pelvis and half protruding through the vulva. This may cause some pain, and at this point the cat appears to give up trying and waits for, or demands, help. If this is not immediately forthcoming the particular kitten involved will not survive, especially if it is coming tail-first.


After the foregoing rather daunting, but by no means exhaustive list of what can, but rarely does, go wrong, the breeder may ask what can be done to recognise trouble early and how it can be avoided or overcome. The first step in avoidance lies in achieving that happy medium between confinement and relative freedom within the confined area. Ideally this should provide a warm, cosy and private but in emergency observable, bed for both the independent and the ultra-dependent type of cats. Much will depend upon the breeder's powers of simple observation. The good observer will have a fair idea of size of litter, degree of abdominal distension, movement of fetuses, slackening of pelvic muscles, etc. and will keep a watchful eye on the visits of their cat to such desirable spots as under the best duvet or in the airing cupboard. The secret, if there is one, of the recognition of trouble lies mainly in the recognition of delay. The hysterical dependent cat is obvious enough and easy enough to deal with, provided the necessary tranquilliser is at hand. Delays later in the course of kittening will again involve observation of behaviour. In the case of the normal interrupted labour it will be evident that the cat is in no distress, has a normal appetite and is perfectly happy with the kittens already born. Straining in the course of a normal parturition, while it may or may not be vigorous, is clearly productive in moving the kitten along and does not appear to give rise to pain. Obstruction, on the other hand, shows us a cat that strains without producing any results, may pant, cry, or appear exhausted, is restless and unsettled, and finally desists in an attempt to recover sufficient strength for a further, though decreased effort. This is the cat that requires help.

Feeling from the outside around the perianal area under the tail will indicate if a kitten is already through the pelvis. A view of a nose or feet and tail at the vulva indicates that birth must be imminent if the kitten is to live. If no progress is being made and the kitten is clearly visible, it is up to the breeder-midwife to give immediate help, since unless the veterinary surgeon literally lives on the premises, veterinary help may not arrive in time for that kitten. If nothing can be felt at the vulva and the hold-up is evidently further forward, then it is time to send for professional help.


It cannot be too firmly stressed that the truly normal cat stands in no need of meddlesome midwifery. The good midwife is essentially the good and unobtrusive observer until trouble occurs. They should have provided, as far as possible, the ideal kittening bed and during the first stage of labour either provided moral support or remained unobtrusive as dictated by events. They should have at their fingertips a history of any previous parturition of the cat in question and, if possible, of earlier generations and related animals. They should have observed the changes during pregnancy and be aware of the degree of abdominal distension, amount of fluid, and perhaps have a rough idea of the number of kittens to be expected. Facilities for help or examination should be at hand if needed (convenient table, access to running warm water, soap and towel). Internal examination is resented by most unsedated cats and should not be undertaken by the unskilled. The veterinary surgeon should have been alerted and given the probable parturition date before the event and informed of the start of labour so that if a call for help becomes necessary, it is expected and can be promptly answered.


Apart from the value of their observations and knowledge of the behaviour of their own cat the breeder can, and in some cases must, be responsible for the treatment of some parturition problems. Treatment of first stage hysteria has already been described. Diagnosis and treatment of the major dystocias must be in the hands of the veterinary surgeon. Because of the small size of the cat, manipulative correction of malpostures from within the vagina is rarely possible and is in any case a job for the skilled expert. To compensate for this, manipulation from outside the abdomen can often correct a malposture such as a laterally deflected head: again professional skill is needed. Often, in any real holdup, a Caesarean operation is the preferred method and, provided that the cat is neither desperately ill nor very exhausted, it is a safe and routine procedure. Present-day methods of anaesthesia are much less likely to depress respiration in the kitten than was once the case, and even in major crises the cat's ability to survive acute abdominal emergency is exceedingly good and surgery is always worthwhile.

The case where the breeder has to help is that of the cat who gives up trying with a kitten hanging visibly from her vulva. If it is coming head first, the first urgency is to clear the membranes away from its nose and mouth to allow breathing to take place. It must then be eased gently out, alternating the direction of traction, first freeing one side then the other, and always directing the pull slightly downwards. Remember that kittens are slippery and wet at birth so have clean pieces of towelling or soft paper towels available to get a grip. If the kitten has only the tail and hind legs showing, delivery is even more urgent and the problem of holding the slippery subject more difficult, but the same principle applies. Hold the hind legs above the hocks, easy gently to alternate sides, and if progress is not made with the aid of a strain or two on the cat's part, try gentle rotation through a few degrees before continuing the easing-out process alternating the direction of pull. Pull or 'traction' probably are misleading words to use to convey the sensitivity required. Co-operate with the cat as she strains and rests, so that progress continues without fear of injury to cat or kitten. Make haste slowly. Immediately the kitten is out, clear the mouth and nose of all membranes and fluid.


The normal mother cat will generally make a much better job of cleaning and drying her kittens than any human agency, so again no meddlesome midwifery is indicated if all appears well. If, however, a kitten has had to be helped out and is not breathing, or on those few occasions when the maternal instinct appears to be lacking and the kitten is ignored, reviving it becomes a matter of urgency. Observation of the cat's own methods show the order in which to imitate them to the best advantage. The cat's first act is to see that the kitten's nose and mouth are clear. Next with a nipping/licking action the cat picks up, then chews through, the umbilical cord and in the process provides a stimulation to the abdominal navel area, getting respiration going. If this is not sufficient, a vigorous licking massage of this area follows. Finally a more general drying lick and some attention to the posterior part of the abdomen and anal area is given to start the bowel and bladder movement going. Then, if it is needed, a nudge towards the maternal nipples. The human imitation can follow much the same plan with additions in real emergency.

1. Tear the membranes from the nose, wipe the nose and open the mouth, tilt the kitten head down and clear away any fluid.

2. If the cord has not broken on delivery, tear it a good inch from the kitten and remove the wet, sloppy bulk of the membranes. Complicated cutting and typing of the cord are not necessary. The cat would chew it through, providing a blunt crushing action to prevent bleeding; the midwife can tear it between the first two fingers and thumb, which does much the same thing.

3. If the kitten is not breathing and obviously vigorous, or if it has come tail-first, and possibly inhaled fluid, it is necessary to clear debris and fluid from the air passages. Take the kitten lying in the palm of the hand, its back towards the palm and neck between forefinger and third finger, its head protruding between the fingers. Enclose the kitten in the fingers and, turning the hand palm downwards with the arm extended, give a sharp swing several times; make quite sure first that you are not too near a table or other protruding edge or disaster will follow. The swing will have the effect of forcing fluids out of the air passages and a further wipe of nose and mouth will clear it away. The swing will also serve to stimulate respiration.

4. The next move imitates the licking of the abdominal wall and stimulates respiration. It comprises a stroking, rubbing movement with a clean towel. Follow this by a brisk, rub dry, assuming that the kitten is by now showing regular breathing. It is imperative to rub the kittens tail as well to increase blood supply to it or the tip might go gangrenous and dry up and fall off. This is particularly important for c-section kittens. If it is not breathing regularly, some further form of artificial respiration may be necessary. Of these, mouth to mouth respiration is probably the most useful if carefully carried out. There are several essential points to remember. It is no use blowing fluids and debris further down: these must be cleared by the swing method and/or gentle shaking of the kitten in the head-down position. Secondly, the capacity of kitten lungs compared to the human is quite minute. Blow very gently and allow a pause for expiration. Repeat this cycle every three to five seconds. Ideally use a cut-down drinking straw to blow through as it is more hygienic and reduces the risk of damage to the kitten's lungs. ( I use a small length of bicycle valve tubing which is soft and pliable - Rusty) Various other methods have been used to make the new-born animal gasp. Among these may be listed brandy or other spirits transferred via a fingertip, and alternate hot and cold water applications. In general it must be said that if the newborn does not start obvious breathing within five minutes, it is probable that brain damage from lack of oxygen will have occurred and it is both unwise and inhumane to persist further and risk rearing a blind animal or a mental cripple.

Warmth is a primary essential for the newborn. The kitten cannot react to cold by shivering and cannot control its own body temperature. In nature, warmth is obtained by direct body contact with the mother and conserved by the maternal choice of an enclosed kittening bed. The first point to remember if help is required is that a newborn wet kitten loses heat very rapidly, hence the brisk rub dry. Follow this, if the mother is ill or not co-operative by contact with a warm, well-covered hot water bottle and conserve heat with a covering blanket. Great care must be taken not to inflict contact burns by having the bottle too hot. An acceptable alternative is the infra-red lamp widely used for pigs and puppies and readily obtainable. Its disadvantages are that many cats dislike the open bed required for its use, and it may make both mother and kittens too hot and lessen the normal close nursing contact.


A normal vigorous kitten when warm and dry needs no assistance from a midwife in finding its teat and commencing to suck. Occasionally an exhausted, restless, nervous or ill cat may fail to assist. Failure on the part of the cat to nurse the kittens should be checked by a veterinary surgeon to ascertain its reasons and for advice on the appropriate treatment for the cat. Meantime, neglected kittens or orphan kittens will need feeding.


In some circumstances the breeder may be faced with a decision to have kittens destroyed at birth. Apart from the agonising decisions concerned with sheer numbers, inability to hand rear or failure to find a foster mother, there are some cases where a kitten if reared is bound to lead a crippled existence and humanity necessitates its destruction. Some of these are obvious at the time of birth, others less so, and some only show defects considerably later. No list can be exhaustive, but as soon as possible a check should be made with the following defects in mind:

1. Severe hydrocephalus as shown by enlargement of the skull and evident presence of fluid.

2. Anasarca or generalised oedema (water-logging of the tissue).

3. Cleft palate which will lead to the inability to suck and dribbling of milk down the nose.

4. Imperforate anus. This may be obvious with the entire absence of an exit for the bowel, or occult when the exit leads into a blind sac within the body. A kitten so affected might live some weeks but would fail to thrive and would never be observed to pass a motion. In the occult case, the true condition could only be found on examination by insertion of a smooth probe such as a well-lubricated thermometer.

5. Hernia or incomplete development of the ventral body wall. A small ringed umbilical hernia is a slight defect but some kittens have virtually no abdominal musculature and should not be kept.

6. Spina bifida or incomplete development of the dorsal body wall.

7. Gross deformity or absence of limbs.

Many serious inherited abnormalities are not obvious at birth and abnormalities of eyes and hearing fall into this category. Suspected abnormalities of joints and limbs should be viewed with caution unless utterly self-evident, such as severe shortening of a limb. Joints at birth are very incomplete structures and most apparent double-jointedness or rotation of limbs right themselves by the time the kitten is really becoming mobile. The most difficult decision usually concerns the kitten persistently rejected by its mother, despite its apparent normality to the human eye. The choice in this case lies between hand rearing, fostering or destruction, and in this connection it should be remembered that the completely hand-reared animal will be at a disadvantage in its behavioural responses to its own species and will later probably be a non-breeder on that account. The decision can only be made by the breeder after full consideration of the circumstances. An additional consideration is that the rejected kitten may well be a defective kitten (mother may know best) in which case hand-rearing will not be successful.


Retention of fetal membranes

Occasionally a cat may fail to pass the final set of fetal membranes after parturition appears to be complete. She will probably show some signs of restlessness and of abdominal discomfort and may be unwilling to settle with her kittens during the 24-72 hours after parturition. Her appetite will probably be poor and a brownish vaginal discharge may be seen. Examination will show a raised temperature and palpation, or feeling, through the abdominal wall will disclose a thickened lumpy area of womb containing the membranes. Veterinary treatment is called for if there is any malaise present. Antibiotic cover is necessary and hormones in the form of ecbolics may affect the expulsion of the retained membranes. Occasionally gentle palpation will cause the cat to strain and pass them.


Metritis, or inflammation of the womb, occasionally happens within three days of parturition. The cat is much more obviously ill than she is with a simple retention of fetal membranes. She will be dull and lethargic, will completely ignore her kittens and will refuse food. She may show an increased thirst for water and may vomit. A purulent, foul-smelling discharge from the vagina is present and the body temperature is raised. On palpation the abdomen is tender and the uterus is felt to be thickened Veterinary treatment, usually consisting of the administration of antibiotics, is indicated.

Uterine problems

Uterine prolapse, or telescopinq of the uterus which then protrudes from the vulva may occur but only rarely as an acute post-parturient emergency. The appearance of the invaginated uterus at the vulva is self-evident. Initially the cat is noticed to be straining and uncomfortable despite the completion of parturition. If treatment is delayed the cat will rapidly become dull, shocked and lethargic, in a similar manner to the animal with a uterine rupture. It goes without saying that. uterine prolapse constitutes an emergency requiring immediate veterinary aid and surgical treatment.


Mastitis in its acute suppurative form sometimes occurs during early lactation. It is usually confined to one gland and may follow a simple congestion or overstocking. The affected gland will be tense, hot, painful and enlarged. If it is only congested, the application of heat and subsequent gentle massage will bring normal milk out of the teat orifice, and the situation may be speedily relieved by milking the gland concerned. If an abscess is present, the cat will be off her food, dull and feverish, and in addition to pain and swelling in the gland, a pointing, or purplish area of pressure from the accumulation of pus will be seen. Veterinary treatment is needed.

Lactation tetany

Lactation tetany could, in theory, occur during, or at any time after parturition, and early cases are well known in the bitch. In the cat, although the disease is well documented, it has been recorded later in lactation, 17 days to eight weeks post-kittening being usual. While the precise causes of the condition are not known, it involves a sudden drop in the amount of calcium circulating in the bloodstream. It is undoubtedly connected with the demands of milk production and the affected cat usually has a fairly large litter to suckle. The first signs of the onset of the condition usually include inco-ordination and tetanic muscular spasms with later collapse and coma. Treatment by the intravenous injection of calcium preparations leads to a spectacular reversal of the condition. A later subcutaneous injection may be required to maintain the recovery. Kittens should be removed from the cat if old enough, otherwise their numbers must be reduced or supplementary feeding given. Any affected cat should only be allowed to rear a small number of kittens at any subsequent litter. Lactation tetany often occurs after each kittening and should be remembered when considering breeding again and taking prophylactic measures, or alternatively of neutering.

Acknowledgments : FAB, Winter 1995

For a wonderful article on tube feeding kittens please got to:



his web site i hope you can enjoy it to..
post #2 of 3
Thank you, this is a wonderful, informative article!

Now, I know you are breeding your Himmy and your Siamese ... as a Siamese breeder myself, I am very interested in hearing more about your cats and about your program! Please do tell!


post #3 of 3
Thread Starter 
Thank you.... I love searching for different things on the web to learn on breeding cats .Yes my himmy is 1 and half years old and is a seal point. She is do anyday.I hope soon.She is 61 days today.She is bagging now and is nesting her temp is today is 100.2..thank you if i find anything else i will post it...
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:
  Return Home
  Back to Forum: Pregnant Cats and Kitten Care
TheCatSite.com › Forums › Our Feline Companions › Pregnant Cats and Kitten Care › I Hope You Enjoy This Web Site I Found!!!