The articles are very informative and should help. But just by way of experience, where they are located is critical, and the type of texture is totally dependent upon the cat, and one of our cats loves to just stand there and scratch on a scratching pad that lays on the floor - the other four love the vertical scratching option and don't use the pad!
We have two scratching pads. The are the same one - one side is sisal (meant to be the "up" side) - the other side is a hard but spongey-kind of rubbery material. One we have right side up, the other we have upside down. Our horizontal scratcher LOVES both of these surfaces, and won't scratch on carpet. Sometimes he sleeps on it, wakes up and stands there and scratches. We placed one in the hallway where he likes to stretch out, and he uses it constantly. The other pad we placed right near the food bowls. They often like to go for a nibble after sleeping, and after napping, waking up and scratching, strolling over for a nibble - he likes to scratch again.
We have a "cat tree" that is covered in a fairly loose weave carpet. They took to it right away. It's in a corner where only the cats hang out.
Several of our cats loved to scratch on the arm-ends of the couch. It's where we sit and hang out - sometimes they like to come over and say "hi" after nap and have a stretch (which means a scratch). We don't stand on formality here. I purchased two hanging scratching things - they're long thin boards covered in sisal with a sisal rope around the top. They're intended to be hung from a doorknob. I tied them in such a way that they rest on the floor and essentially cover up the exposed arms at the end of the couch (vertically, not horizontally on the couch itself). Now they don't scratch the couch. We don't have the room to put a standing scratching post next to either side of the couch, but if I lived in a larger home, that's what I'd do. They could be removed when company comes to visit if you want that look and put back in position when company leaves.
Whether they should be carpet posts or sisal posts, you'll have to experiment. Ours are sisal, but the same idea comes in carpet too. There are also cardboard scratchers. I know some cats LOVE this. That'd work under an end-table at the end of a couch!
Bottom-line - you have to be willing to invest some time and money into trying different types of posts and different positions for them. Also, if it's a young kitten, it could also just be learning to use the post(s)/pad(s) as opposed to other things.
You can try purchasing Feliway to spray in areas where she scratches that you don't want her to. This is a spray that mimics the friendly hormone in cat's cheeks (which they spread when they rub on you and your things). Liberally spray Feliway where she's scratching where you don't want her to (at cat cheek level). This will help discourage her.
But especially if a kitten, you may need to do more. If you've got several different types of posts/pads of different materials, most likely place for her to use them is right near where she likes to sleep - and she's still scratching in places you don't want her to, you'll have to take some steps to retrain her. You can also purchase double-sided tape (there's also a product sold in pet stores that's larger than office-supply type tape). Cats do NOT like the "sticky" of tape, and if placed where she's scratching that she shouldn't be, she'll learn to scratch where she should.
Also, you can blow a short, sharp puff of air in her face when she's doing something you don't want her to. It will startle her, and she'll stop doing whatever it is. Applied to scratching, you then pick her up and take her to a post or pad.
Most important, though, is likely type and placement of post. I'd start with putting acceptable scratching items near where she likes to sleep. They love a good stretch when they wake up.
And as she's a kitten, start clipping her claws now. She won't like it at first, but the way I dealt with this was to do it while they're sleeping. We only have one cat that lets me clip claws and just sits there while I do it. The rest I get a claw or two at a time before they wake up. With five cats here, I just make sure to clip a couple of claws a day.
This helps provide the nail maintenance she's needs via scratching, and this also helps reduce any wear and tear on your furniture, carpets and wood floors. (Not to mention your arms if she ever gets sick and needs pills for 10 days).