What I know about it and it may be able to help someone in the future.
The bladder is a distendable muscular sack or resevior used to store the urine formed by the kidneys until the cat is ready to eliminate it. Although the bladder is a relatively simple structure , things can go wrong. When they do, the result is often acutely uncomfortable.
Cystitis, meaning inflammation of the bladder wall, is a relatively common condition in the cat and one that can cause great irritation and distress.
Many cases of cystitis are assiciated with the formation of a coarse ,sand-like deposit.
Bacterial Infection is probably the most common cause of cystitis. Some bacteria are normally present in urine but do not cause problems under normal circumstances. It is when there bacteria are able to multiply, or if particularly pathogenic bacteria gain entry, that cystitis flares up.
The factor that favour bacterial cystitis include
* Urine stagnation: an important feature of the bladder's defense system is that it empties almost completely. Cats should urinate three or more times daily, literally flushing out bacteria and wastes before they have time to do any damage. If the cat cannot (or will not) empy it's bladder reguarly then bacteria have a much better chance of multiplying to gain a foothold. Such a situation could occur if the cat dooes not get to empty its bladder. For example the cat my be reluctant to go outside if it is raining or too cold. Or there may be a partial obstruction of the bladder or perhaps a disturbance of a bladder function, for example due to spinal injury.
*Physical irritation of bladder wall from bladder stones.
*Iritation due to the bladder worm (these worms only rarely cause problems)
The first sign is usually your cat begins to urinate more often, sometimes in unusal places like in the bath or the sink. Only small quantities of urine are passed at each attempt. As the condition develops, the cat spends more time squatting and straining, perhaps scratching at the ground, twitching it's tail and looking around anxiousely. The urine is sometimes bloodstained and may have a strong,offensive owner. The straining can easily be mistaken for a sign of constipation. Many owners waste valuable time treating these cats with oil and purgatives.
Most cats remain fairly bright and continue to eat.Most drink more.
Antibiotics normally if an infection is present or suspected.