Every reference site I have bookmarked indicates that "Rubber Plant" is toxic.
There is only one species of rebber plant which is non-toxic. It's known as a Baby Rubber Plant.....grows to a max of 8 inches and can be found here http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week186.shtml
When people say "Rubber Plant"...my take is that they are speaking of a much taller plant with correspondingly very large leaves
How toxic? Personally, if I understand a plant to be "toxic", I simply will not have it in my house. I, personally, would not trust the health of my cats to a lady in a flower shop, when organizations as these are raising red flagshttp://www.cfainc.org/articles/plants.htmlhttp://www.sniksnak.com/plants-toxic.html
A suggestion for you might be to speak nicely to the shop from which the plant came...all Palm plants are safe according to this list http://www.sniksnak.com/plants.html
...Palms can be had in a size similar to yours...maybe the supplier would simply switch for you? If not and, if you're uncomfortable with getting rid of the plant, maybe first find out what safe plants they do have. Then call the person who sent you the plant, express your thanks but raise concerns about your allergy to Rubber plants and wonder out-loud if, perhaps, the flower shop might have XXX plant.