I just wanted to opine and share my experiences with you, please do not feel that I am judging you or otherwise.
Although some replies were emotionally charged, I believe that no one said that you're a bad person, to lock her in a cage, to hit her, or to let her destroy the apartment. (Please don't do any of those things).
Many people here have seen cats go through agony as a result of the declaw process, and are passionate about preventing a painful situation for others. I hope that you will not turn away from any good advice that anyone has to offer because of personal offense. Ultimately, it is the cat's health that is important!
My mom has a 15lb cat, Grim. He is a big boy with big claws. His claws are so big that they don't fully retract! My mom, like you, is a renter who was concerned about the carpet, screen door, etc. We tried to clip Grim's claws, and the first few times I came out with more than a few battle wounds! He was so afraid, that he pooped right when we were clipping his claws! It took a while, and he still doesn't like it, but now my mom is able to clip his claws on her own.
For a while, she also considered having him declawed. But when she found out that kitty's digits would be removed at the joint, she reconsidered. It really is a painful process for kitty, and these surgeries do not often turn out well. Behavioral issues could also arise even if kitty suffers no extended damage after the initial surgery. These could include litter box issues, in which case the remedy might be worse than the illness, so to speak.
Please do reconsider the de-clawing. I know how you feel about having to pay apartment damage, but I feel that de-clawing is not the best solution, overall. (I rent too, and as a grad student I'm always on a budget. I don't like paying extra either... so much that we don't wear shoes in the house, so I understand!) Is it possible that you could have a friend help you out with clipping the claws, or putting on the soft paws? With a little bit of patience, I'll be you could become a pro at the clipping and/or soft paws! It won't happen suddenly, it'll take some time... but it's not impossible.
BTW, before my mom became a claw-trim expert, she had the vet do it once every few weeks for ~$7. If you choose to do this yourself, maybe you could wrap most of kitty's body in a towel to protect yourself from kicks, maybe wear long sleeves? You could also try it when kitty is sleepy, or feed snacks afterward to condition her to like it, or at least not be as afraid of the nail clipping. (I also liked the suggestion about carpet runners!)