Kittens call to their mother, and of course the mother cats call back. Fighting meows, the long drawn out angry cries. And there's the call for a mate type meow.
Other then that it's not really natural for them to. If you're among a feral group you really won't hear them meow at all.
They meow to us because we listen and respond, sometimes with food.
I think, by taking them in and caring for all their needs, that we keep them in a sort of kitten behavior in some areas and that's why the meowing persists in it's use towards us. They see us as the 'momma cat' and we don't give them a reason to see us else wise.