First, my condolences on your loss. 17 years is a long, long time and it's so painful to lose a friend you've had for that long.
Personally, I wouldn't get another dog until your wife is on board. You might need to so some persuading, but it's really better for the whole family and the new dog for everyone to be excited and welcoming about the new addition.
Another option is to foster a dog for a rescue that specializes in the breed of your choice. This allows a worthy dog to have a chance to experience the love and structure of a home while waiting for a permanent adoption. You could also volunteer for a local shelter or help an ill or elderly neighbor walk their dog if you still want to have dogs in your life until you buy your house.
The other benefit of waiting is that you can take as much time as you need to select a reputable breeder from whom to buy your next dog or to look at dogs available through rescues and shelters. The best dog breeders often have months and year-long waiting lists for their puppies because they don't breed their dogs that often. You also have an opportunity to decide if a puppy or an adult dog will be best for your family's schedule. Occasionally, breeders will sell adult dogs to pet homes if the dogs can't be shown in the ring for some reason.
As a renter, I've always had an adult dog and it's never been a problem. My husband and I are hoping to buy a house before we get our next dog because we're planning to buy a puppy for showing/conformation. I want it to be my carpets that get messed up and not the landlord's until the puppy is house-broken